The Flame Sculptures presented in this documentation incorporate several common elements, related to their construction, for safe operation. These are:
• Low-pressure operation
All Flame Sculptures incorporate secondary regulation to reduce operation pressure behind flame effects to 20 psi or less. This pressure is nominally about 10 times less than the typical operating pressure in a standard 5-gallon propane tank.
• Rated tubing, valves and couplings
All tubing, accumulators and couplers are built using industry rated components. All propane flow-handling parts were purchased from approved distribution hardware outlets. All pipe, tubing, connectors and sealant used are LP rated.
• Emergency shutoff
For Flame Sculptures where secondary regulation feeds a local low-pressure accumulator, a 1/4-turn ball-valve shutoff is employed at the output of the accumulator. In all Flame Sculptures, emergency shutoff is also located at the propane tank primary valve.
• Propane used
The average flow of propane for all Flame Sculptures can range from 5 gallons of propane per hour to 1 gallon of propane per hour, depending on secondary pressure regulation settings. Flame Sculpture propane use is commensurate with that of standard outdoor patio heaters or BBQs. The propane tanks employed in all Flame Sculptures are industry standard 5 or 10-gallon propane tanks, complete with Overfill Protection Device (ODP) valves.
• Permits obtained and previous installations
Permits have repeatedly been obtained for Flame Sculptures in the City of Santa Barbara. In the last quarter of 2005, permits were issued for the dates of November 10th, 2005, December 2nd, 2005 and December 3rd, 2005. The Flame Sculptures have also been shown in large events, based in Los Angeles LA Decom 2005) and San Diego (SD: Xara 2005 and Decom 2005), where the requisite fire permits where secured by the event organizers.
• Fire Safety
Flame Sculptures, during operation, all always attended by a trained operator. A fire extinguisher and first aid kit are located within reach at all times.