Appendix A: Biopotential and Transducer Signal Characteristics

Surface Electrode Measurements of Biopotentials

ECG
HFQRS
EEG
ECoG
EGG
EMG
EOG
EDA
ICG
IPG
Stimulus/Response
Nerve Conduction Velocity
Transducer Signals
Arbitrary Outputs
Blood Pressure
Thoracic Circumference (Respiration)
Skin Temperature
Evoked Responses
Electroglottalgram (EGL)

Surface Electrode Measurements of Biopotentials – all reported biopotential values are for non-invasive surface electrodes, unless otherwise noted.

Setup table to indicate:

  1. maximum signal (p-p)
  2. typical signal levels (p-p)
  3. bandwidth of signal

Electrocardiogram (ECG)

  1. maximum signal: 5mV (p-p)
  2. typical signal levels: 500uV-2000uV (p-p)
  3. bandwidth of signal: 0.05-150Hz

High Frequency QRS (HFQRS)

  1. maximum signal: 100uV (p-p)
  2. typical signal levels: 5-30uV (p-p)
  3. bandwidth of signal: 150-250Hz

Electroencephalogram (EEG) – surface of scalp

  1. maximum signal: 200uV (p-p)
  2. typical signal levels: 30-100uV (p-p)
  3. bandwidth of signal: 0.01-100Hz
    • Slow Cortical Potentials: 0.01-3Hz
    • Delta: 0.5-4 Hz
    • Theta: 4-8 Hz
    • Alpha: 8-13 Hz
    • Beta: 13-30Hz
    • Gamma 30-100 Hz

Electrocorticogram (ECoG) – surface of brain

  1. maximum signal: 1000uV (p-p)
  2. typical signal levels: 50-200uV (p-p)
  3. bandwidth of signal: 0.01-500Hz

Electrogastrogram (EGG):

Electrical Control Activity (ECA):

  1. maximum signal: 1000uV (p-p)
  2. typical signal levels: 100-300uV (p-p)
  3. bandwidth of signal: 0.015Hz-0.30 Hz

Electrical Response Activity (ERA):

  1. maximum signal: 1000uV (p-p)
  2. typical signal levels: 100uV-300uV (p-p)
  3. bandwidth of signal: 0.5-1.5Hz

Electromyogram (EMG)

  1. maximum sEMG signal: 5mV (p-p)
  2. typical sEMG signal levels: 500uV-2000uV (p-p)
  3. bandwidth of sEMG signal: 5-500Hz (surface EMG: sEMG)
  4. primary sEMG power: 20-200Hz
  5. bandwidth of EMG, via wire/needle electrodes: 1-20,000Hz
  6. typical EMG signal levels, via wire/needle electrodes: 50uV-50mV (p-p)

Electrooculogram (EOG)

  1. maximum signal: 5mV (p-p)
  2. typical signal levels: 500uV-2000uV (p-p)
  3. bandwidth of signal: DC-100Hz

Electrodermal Activity (EDA)

  1. maximum signal: 50uS (p-p)
  2. typical signal levels: 1uS-10uS (p-p)
  3. bandwidth of signal: DC-10Hz

Skin Potential Level and Response (SPL, SPR)

  1. maximum signal: 100 mV
  2. typical signal levels: -70 to +10 mV
  3. bandwidth of signal: DC – 5 Hz

Impedance Cardiogram (ICG)

Zo:

  1. maximum signal: 50 ohms
  2. typical signal levels: females (25-35 ohms), males (15-30 ohms)
  3. bandwidth of signal: DC-100 Hz

dZ:

  1. maximum signal: 5 ohms/sec
  2. typical signal levels: 0.8-3.5 ohms/sec
  3. bandwidth of signal: DC-100 Hz

Typical ranges for other ICG parameters

left ventricular ejection time: 200-400msec
stroke volume: 60-120 ml/beat
cardiac output: 4000-9000 ml/minute

Impedance Plethysmography (IPG)

Z magnitude

  1. signal range: 10-1000 ohms (12.5-100kHz)
  2. typical signal levels: depends on body location
    • arms (75-150ohms)
    • legs (50-100ohms)
    • torso (10-50ohms)
  3. bandwidth of signal: DC-100Hz

Z phase

  1. signal range 0-45 degrees (12.5-100kHz)
  2. typical signal levels: depends on body location
  3. bandwidth of signal: DC-100Hz

Stimulus/Response

H-Reflex (H-wave, M-wave)

  1. maximum signal: 10mV (p-p)
  2. typical signal levels: 1000uV-5000uV (p-p)
  3. bandwidth of signal: 10-500Hz

Nerve Conduction Velocity (Electroneurogram)

  1. maximum signal: 100uV (p-p)
  2. typical signal levels: 5uV-20uV (p-p)
  3. bandwidth of signal: 100-3000Hz

Transducer Signals

Full (Wheatstone) Bridge

  1. full scale range: 1mV/1V excitation
  2. assuming 10V excitation, then 10mV maximum signal
  3. bandwidth: DC coupling to 1000Hz

Arbitrary Outputs (Single Ended)

Signal level outputs are excitation dependent

  1. respiration
  2. pulse plethysmogram
  3. temperature

Blood Pressure

Max Range:

  1. systolic: 50-230mmHg
  2. diastolic: 35-130mmHg
  3. mean arterial pressure: 40-170mmHg

Normal Range:

  1. systolic: 90-140mmHg
  2. diastolic: 60-90mmHg
  3. mean arterial pressure: 70-110 mmHg

Thoracic Circumference (maximum inspiration to expiration delta)

  1. 1) men: mean delta – 6.5cm, range 1-8cm
  2. 2) women: mean delta – 5.5cm, range 1-7cm

Skin Temperature

  1. normal skin surface temperature: 32.8 deg C (91 deg F)
  2. skin surface temperature range: 19-37 deg C
  3. mean body temperature = 0.64·TCore + 0.36·TSkin

Evoked Responses

Short latency response (0-15ms), sample rate (10kHz)
Middle latency response (15-65ms), sample rate (2kHz)
Long latency response – cognitive components (65ms – 1000ms), sample rate (250Hz)
Very long latency response – CNV (2-10 seconds), sample rate (100Hz)

Auditory Brainstem Response (short latency)

  1. bandwidth: 100Hz-3000Hz
  2. amplitude range: 20nV-700nV (p-p)
  3. recording length: 15ms
  4. number of averages: 2000-3000
  5. stimulation: auditory click or tone pip
  6. stimulation rate: typically 11Hz, range: (1-200Hz)

Visual Evoked Response (middle latency)

  1. bandwidth: 1Hz-100Hz
  2. amplitude range: 2uV-25uV (p-p)
  3. recording length: 1000ms
  4. number of averages: 100-500
  5. stimulation: light pulse (flash) or checkerboard (pattern)
  6. stimulation rate: 1-10Hz

Auditory Evoked Response (middle latency)

  1. bandwidth: 1Hz-100Hz
  2. amplitude range: 0.2uV-5uV (p-p)
  3. recording length: 1000ms
  4. number of averages: 500-1000
  5. stimulation: auditory click or tone pip
  6. stimulation rate: 1-10Hz

Somatosensory Evoked Potential

  1. bandwidth: 5Hz-3000Hz
  2. amplitude range: 0.2uV-5uV (p-p)
  3. recording length: 100ms
  4. number of averages: 500-2000
  5. stimulation: constant current or voltage pulse (100-300usec)
  6. stimulation rate: 3-5Hz

Steady State Evoked Potential

  1. bandwidth: 1Hz-100Hz
  2. amplitude range: 2uV-20uV (p-p)
  3. recording length: 500ms
  4. number of averages: 100-500
  5. peak response: typically 40Hz
  6. stimulation: constant auditory tone (monaural or binaural)

Event Related Potential (response after 50ms)

[N/P] Tests (P50, N100, P200, N200, P300, N300, N400, P600)

  1. bandwidth: 0.1Hz-30Hz
  2. amplitude range: 1uV-20uV (p-p)
  3. recording length: 1000ms
  4. number of averages: 100-500
  5. stimulation: protocol dependent (auditory or visual)

Mismatch Negativity

  1. bandwidth: 0.1-30Hz
  2. amplitude range: 0.5uV-5uV (p-p)
  3. recording length: 500ms
  4. number of averages: 100-500
  5. stimulation: auditory tones

Contingent Negative Variation

  1. bandwidth: 0.01-30Hz
  2. amplitude range: 1uV-20uV (p-p)
  3. recording length: 10 seconds
  4. number of averages: 50-100
  5. stimulation: auditory tones
  6. stimulation rate: 0.5-2Hz

Electroglottalgram (EGL)

  1. bandwidth: 50Hz-500Hz
  2. impedance range: 100ohms-500ohms

Oxygen Saturation from Pulse Oximetry (SpO2)

Adults at Sea Level:

  1. normal range: 96-99%
  2. mild hypoxia: 81-95%
  3. moderate hypoxia: 61-80%
  4. severe hypoxia: 40-60%
  5. extreme hypoxia: < 40%